Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts
Many East Asian scripts can be written horizontally or vertically. Chinese , Japanese and Korean scripts can be oriented in either direction, as they consist mainly of disconnected logographic or syllabic units, each occupying a square block of space, thus allowing for flexibility for which direction texts can be written, be it horizontally from left-to-right, horizontally from right-to-left, vertically from top-to-bottom, and even vertically from bottom-to-top. Traditionally, Chinese , Japanese , and Korean are written vertically in columns going from top to bottom and ordered from right to left, with each new column starting to the left of the preceding one. The stroke order and stroke direction of Chinese characters hanzi in Chinese, kanji in Japanese, hanja in Korean , Japanese kana , and Korean Hangul all facilitate writing in this manner.
It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument, brush , or other writing instruments. Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable. Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding invitations and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art , announcements, graphic design and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions , and memorial documents. It is also used for props and moving images for film and television, and also for testimonials , birth and death certificates, maps , and other written works. The principal tools for a calligrapher are the pen and the brush.